Thyroid and Parathyroid surgery involves the care and surgical management of diseases found in the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Lumps (nodules) growing in the thyroid is relatively common and some of these lumps may be cancerous. Mainstay of treatment for thyroid cancer is surgery and this can be done safely with excellent outcome. There can be an over or underproduction of thyroxine by the thyroid gland as well, and though these issues are usually treated medically, surgery is needed in some instances. The parathyroids, four small relatively tiny endocrine glands lying next to the thyroid (two on each side of the neck) secrete a hormone known as iPTH which is responsible for the regulation of calcium metabolism in the human body. One or more of these parathyroid glands can become pathological and affect the blood calcium level, which in turn can affect many vital processes in our bodies, including our muscles, heart, and kidneys. Thankfully, these pathological parathyroids can be treated successfully with surgery. Cancer of the parathyroids is rare but it can be treated with surgery as well with good outcomes.